Space is not empty, but full of plasma and particles that you never expected to be there.
"99.9 percent of the Universe is made up of plasma," says Dr. Dennis Gallagher, a plasma physicist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center.
The magnetosphere surrounds and protects the earth from stellar plasma with a complex system of interacting electric and magnetic fields, electric currents and charged particles.
Rockets, satellites and the International Space Station fly in plasma.
The Earth’s magnetic field protects us from the hazards of space environment.
- 1. The Origination of Particles/Plasma in Space
Because of ionization, the origin of particles, or plasma, is found in space. The CME's (Coronal Mass Ejecta), GCR's (Galactic Cosmic Rays), and SPE's (Solar Particle Events) cause temperatures to raise. As the temperatures raise, the number density of charged particles increases.
The handout listed below, contains an activity designed by SOHO (the Solar Heliospheric Observatory), to explain how the speed of the movement of particles from our sun can be determined through the observation of solar flares and solar wind in recent coronographs taken of the sun.
Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) image
- 2. Physiological Effects of Electrostatics on Humans
- 3. Is Space Empty?
Registrants to the session will begin to consider space as not the void once thought but as an entity that has a significant behavior and effect that humans must learn to take into account as the exploration of space continues.....
Registrants will learn how to prepare a demonstration and individual student cloud chambers to observe the presence of particle paths made by cosmic rays to reinforce the idea that Earth is being bombarded by particles from cosmic rays. Our sun and other stars contribute to the particles that are seen in a cloud chamber.
- 4. The Aurora
Hundreds of years ago, auroras were a source of fascination and superstition. The shimmering, shifting, curtain of colored light that seemed to float on the air prompted legends and stories to be created by people living in the high northern regions. Most of the time the aurora seen in the sky were white-green in color. Sometimes, great red auroras were seen and those living in the lower latitudes thought these auroras brought omens of war or destruction.
As people began to become curious about the aurora and study it, theories developed. Some thought that auroras were reflected sunlight from the arctic ice, others thought it was firelight from the edge of the world. We know a lot more about the aurora today, but still have a lot of questions. Scientists, like those involved in the FAST satellite program and the sounding rocket campaigns, are solving the pieces of the aurora puzzle.A fantastic website that explains the aurora can be found at:
- 5. The Effect of Electrostatics on Equipment
Participants construct an electroscope to detect a change in charge to foil electrodes, view and discuss various demonstrations of materials effected by a charged baton or PVC pipe, and use a Hubble Telescope model to discuss electrostatic charges in space on orbiting equipment.
- 6. Fun Flyers !Participants experiment with a battery charged electric field and the manipulation of Mylar films through the air. The use of electrostatic charge to control the Mylar figures is a great application to understand electrostatic charge.
- 7. Reflections and Feedback
Please let us know your thoughts about this workshop by using the discussion forum below
- What was your favorite activity?
- What was the most important part of the workshop for you?
- Are there any areas that need improvement?
- How was the length of the workshop?
- Any additional comments
After you use the discussion forum, please answer the BRIEF survey questions in the link below.
- 8. Extra Materials